We will examine African American protests from the attempt to preserve African heritage to the Civil Rights movement and Black nationalism initiatives. Among the topics covered will be resistance to enslavement, the Civil War and attempts to secure citizenship rights. Among individuals who will be highlighted are Nat Turner, Harriet Tubman, Ida Wells, Carter Woodson, W. E. B. DuBois, Marcus Garvey, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and Muhammad Ali.
Gordon McKinney (firstname.lastname@example.org) has taught history for 40 years at the collegiate level, retiring from Berea College. He has researched and published scholarship on African American history. He has taught several classes at College for Seniors.